Doctoral programs represent the highest level of education in the higher education system. These programs aim to provide students with advanced theoretical knowledge, research skills, and independent critical thinking abilities. Generally, doctoral programs allow students to specialize in a specific field, conduct independent research, and make original contributions. In this context, an overview of doctoral programs can be listed as follows:

Doctoral Programs:
1. Program Duration and Structure:
Doctoral programs typically last between 3 to 5 years.
Programs usually involve intensive coursework alongside working on an original thesis project.
2. Research and Thesis:
Doctoral students often conduct in-depth research on a self-selected topic.
The thesis aims for students to make an original contribution to their field of study and expand knowledge.
3. Academic Development:
Programs aim to equip students with leadership and teaching skills in the academic world.
Activities such as seminar participation, conference presentations, and article writing are part of this process.

4. Our Doctoral Programs in ISTU:
4.1. Department of Aviation Systems and Technologies:
Aviation Research: Investigation of new technologies and sustainable flight systems.
Flight Safety: Development and implementation of safety standards in the aviation sector.
Air Traffic Management Optimization: Focus on airspace management and optimization of flight traffic.

4.2. Department of Business Management:
Business Strategy and Competition: Strategies for gaining a competitive advantage in the global business environment.
Leadership and Organizational Behavior: In-depth study of leadership models and organizational culture.
Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Original research on innovation processes and entrepreneurship.

4.3. Department of Cybersecurity Engineering:
Security Algorithms: Analysis of cryptographic algorithms used to ensure information security.
Threat Analysis and Defense: Analysis of cyber threats and studies on effective defense strategies.
Data Security and Privacy: Research on compliance with data security standards and privacy issues.

4.4. Department of Sports Health Sciences:
Performance Physiology: Understanding physiological processes to enhance athletes' physical performance.
Injury Rehabilitation: Treatment of sports injuries and preservation of athletes' health.
Nutrition and Sports: Research on nutritional strategies for athletes.

4.5. Department of Software Engineering:
Software Architecture: Design and management of large-scale software systems.
Software Quality and Testing: Development of testing strategies and methods to improve software quality.
Software Development Methodologies: Analysis of Agile, Waterfall, and other software development methodologies.

4.6. Department of Management Information Systems:
Business Intelligence and Data Analytics: Extraction of meaningful information from business data and analysis for decision-makers.
Enterprise Software Management: Effective management of enterprise software systems used in businesses.
Management Information Systems Strategies: Strategic use of information systems for optimizing business processes.

4.7. Department of Management and Organization:
Strategic Management: Skills in strategic planning and implementation in organizations.
Human Resource Management: Specialization in human resource strategies and organizational behavior.
Organizational Change and Innovation: Focus on change management in organizations and innovation strategies.

4.8. Department of Business Engineering:
Business Process Optimization: Strategies for analyzing and improving business processes to increase efficiency.
Decision Making and Analytical Methods: Application of analytical methods to enhance decision-making processes in businesses.
Operational Excellence: Studies on optimizing operational processes in businesses to increase efficiency.

4.9. Department of Computer Engineering:
Distributed and Embedded Systems: Research on the design and management of embedded systems and distributed computing.
Database Management: Studies on effectively managing large datasets to enhance information processing.
Computer Networks: Analysis and development of computer networks and communication protocols.

4.10. Department of Artificial Intelligence Engineering:
Robotics and Automation: Design and development of industrial and service robots.
Cognitive Computing: Mimicking human thought processes through artificial intelligence systems.
Natural Language Processing: Development of computer systems with the ability to understand and generate natural language.

5. Admission Requirements:
Students applying to doctoral programs generally need to have a graduate-level degree.
Some programs may have specific requirements such as language proficiency.

Each doctoral program is unique, aiming to provide students with in-depth knowledge in a specific field. While following these general principles, doctoral programs in sports, engineering, and management focus on their respective disciplines' specific areas of expertise.